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Anatomy of the Spine

Articular Facet Joints

The articular facets are where two neighboring vertebrae attach.

Spinous Process

The spinous process protrudes from the back of each vertebra. Muscles and ligaments that move and stabilize the vertebrae attach to the spinous processes.


Discs separate vertebrae. They are made of tough, elastic material that allows the spine to bend and twist naturally.


The flat plates of the lamina create the outer wall of the vertebral canal and help protect the spinal cord.

Vertebral Canal

The spinal cord sits in this channel formed by the lamina and the vertebral body.

Spine Diagram